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ETF - Cohort-sequential longitudinal databases Evaluation through follow-up

THE COHORTS BORN IN 1982 (cohort 6)

The 1982 cohort consists of pupils sampled from grade 3 of compulsory school. The
sampling method is the same as for those born in 1977, which provided a total of 9 108
pupils in the cohort.
As for previous cohorts, the data kept in the register are of two types: 1) administrative
data and 2) self-reported data.
1. Administrative data. Administrative data for those born in 1982 were collected by
Statistics Sweden during the 1991/92 academic year, but only up until the end
of the1993/94 year, i.e. until the pupils were in grade 5 of compulsory school.
The collected data are of the same type as those collected for the 1977 and 1972
cohorts (Statistics Sweden, 1996). Administrative data are available for 8 805
2. Self-reported data. Self-reported data for those born in 1982 were collected in the
spring term of 1995 by the Department of Education, Göteborg University. The
collected data concerns particulars of the results of three aptitude tests, as well
as responses to separate pupil and parent questionnaires. In addition to these
two questionnaires, a third questionnaire was given to teachers.

Questionnaire data from parents.

The questionnaire given to the parents of the 1982
cohort contains some questions given to the parents of previous pupil cohorts.
Most of the questions in this questionnaire are new, however, and have been
grouped into scales. In the following sections the questions 11, 12 and 13 that
have been grouped into scales will be presented in more detail. The number of
parents who responded to the parent questionnaire is 6 595 or 75 per cent.


Question 11 focuses on the pupils’ contact with their parents and, in particular,
how often they speak about their schoolwork and how they feel in school as
well as the parents’ involvement in the school activities. This scale attained an
alpha of 0.82 (5 items).

Perceptions of educational practices

Question 12 concerns the parents’ opinion of the information that they receive
from the teachers about working practices and the demands that school places
on pupils. This scale reached an alpha of 0.81 (5 items).
Question 13 concerns the parents’ opinion of how efficient the school has been
with such things as stimulating the pupils’ knowledge development and
competences or developing good pupil and teacher-pupil relationships as well as
learning pupils to take responsibility. This scale attained an alpha of 0.90 (8
Questionnaire data from teachers. The teacher questionnaire given to the teachers of
the 1982 cohort is totally new. The number of teachers who responded to this
questionnaire is 933 out of 1 152 or 75 per cent. The content of the teacher
questionnaire is briefly described in the next section.

Personal background

Six questions obtain information about the teacher’s personal background,
including, amongst other things, the number of years she/he has been employed
as a teacher and the extent of her/his employment.

Classroom and school characteristics

Six questions concern information about the classroom structure, such as the
number of pupils receiving home-language instruction and the degree of
heterogeneity/homogeneity of the pupils’ ability/knowledge in each class, as
well as information about the classroom climate, such as quality in the pupils’
interactions with one another.
Six questions concern the teacher’s opinion of the school’s resources, including
the availability of books/equipment, teaching facilities and in-service training.
The responses to these questions range from “Very good” to “Very poor” (5
response alternatives).
Two questions concern evaluation practices among the teacher’s own working
unit and among the school staff as a whole. The teachers are asked how
common it is that they use results and data from different research studies such
as observations, interviews or attitude measures, when they evaluate their
teaching efficacy or school organisation.

Perceptions of educational practices

Five questions concern the degree of importance that the teacher attaches to
certain teaching practices, such as putting emphasis on the pupils’ basic skills or
encouraging pupils to develop personal responsibility for their own learning and
using tests to evaluate pupils’ performance as a means of knowledge
development. The responses here range from “Very important” to “Not
important at all” (5 response alternatives).
Five questions concern the teacher’s opinion of the parents’ involvement with
the school and in classroom practise, as well as the information that they receive
from the teacher about working practises and the demands that school places on

Questionnaire data from pupils in grade 6.

The questionnaire given to the 1982 cohortis quite different from the one used for the 1977 cohort in the same grade. In
particular, most of the questions are new and have been grouped together into
scales. The questionnaire aims to capture information about the pupils’ selfperceived
competence in different academic and social domains (21 questions),
motivation and attitudes towards schoolwork (15 questions, including an openended
question about the pupils’ own reasons for going to school and learning),
perceptions of educational practices (6 questions), vocational plans (one openended
question) and leisure activities (10 questions). More detailed information
about these categories of questions is provided below. The number of pupils
who responded to the pupil questionnaire is 7 186 or 82 per cent.

Self-perceptions of competence

Seven questions in the questionnaire concern pupils’ general perceptions of their
competence in seven different school subjects.
Fourteen questions concern how competent pupils think they are in
accomplishing certain tasks in Swedish (4 questions), English (4 questions) and
mathematics (6 questions). The tasks that pupils have to consider are purely
academic such as reading, understanding and writing texts in e.g. Swedish or
English, as well as tasks that require social (communicative) competency, such as
to speaking and understanding spoken English or speaking Swedish in front of
the teacher and the whole class.


Seven questions ask pupils whether they have any personal interest in the
knowledge they have gained, and the process of acquiring it, in the seven school
Seven questions deal with the positive as well as the negative affects (feelings of
success and anxiety) that pupils may experience in some ordinary evaluative
situations that take place in school. Of these seven, three questions are
essentially the same as the questions included in the questionnaires given to the
1967 and 1972 cohorts, while the remainder are new.
One open-ended question invites pupils to provide their own responses to the
question “Why do all children in Sweden go to school?” This question is new
and refers to pupils’ own motivational reasons for going to school and for

Perceptions of educational practices

Six questions deal with pupils’ perceptions of a variety of educational practices
to which they are exposed in school. The questions concern the pupils’
experience of working in groups, the use of extra materials that are available in
the schools, the frequency with which pupils feel that they are involved in the
planning of instruction, and in having tests and homework.

Plans and choices

One open-ended question concerns the occupation that pupils would like to
have when they are adults.

Leisure time activities

Ten questions ask the pupils to estimate the time they usually spend on different
kinds of leisure activities, including homework, and the amount of books and
comics, that they read in their leisure time. A question about the frequency with
which pupils feel that they get help from parents with schoolwork is also
included in this group of questions. These questions are basically the same as the
questions given to the 1967 and 1972 cohorts in grade 6, with the exception that
the response alternatives have been increased from 3 to either 4 or 5. One
question, which concerns the frequency of being given homework, is however
Aptitude tests. The three aptitude tests are identical to those used for the previous
cohorts in 1961, 1966, 1980, 1985 and 1990 for grade 6.

Achievement test in grade 6.

Analyses of the internal consistency revealed that the
questions in the arithmetical test that pupils in the 1972 and 1977 cohorts have
been tested with in grade 6 had been too easy. Consequently, in order to
increase the reliability of the test, a number of new items were constructed by
Bengt-Olof Ljung at the Stockholm Institute of Education. Following an initial
trial, the new standardised achievement test in mathematics that pupils in the
1982 cohort have been tested with in the spring term 1995 at grade 6 consisted
of 20-paper-and-pencil tasks (alpha=.83) of which only four had appeared on
the previous test used in the same grade. The total number of pupils who
received the test is 7 607. Scores on this test are available for 7 186 pupils.

National standardised achievement tests in grade 9.

For this cohort, scores on the
national standardised achievement tests in Swedish, Swedish as a second
language, English and mathematics from grade 9 of compulsory school were
collected in the spring term of 1998.

Questionnaire data from pupils in grade 3 at upper secondary school.

As for the 1977
cohort, a single version of the questionnaire only was given to the 1982 cohort
in grade 3 of upper secondary school in the sping term of 2001, since a separate
version was not given to the small percentage of pupils who did not continue
their school education at the upper secondary level. The questions given to the
pupils who continued directly to upper secondary school are essentially the same
as the ones used in the previous questionnaire. One part of the questionnaire,
however, was extended to include some additional questions. Responses to the
questionnaire were obtained from approximately 66 per cent of the total cohort
or 5 544 individuals.
Questions 1-4 focus on background information and concern upper secondary
school, while questions 5-8 concern retrospective experiences during the pupil’s
period of education in the upper level of compulsory school. These questions
are addressed to all pupils, i.e. the ones who have started and completed upper
secondary school, as well as those who have dropped out of upper secondary
school and the ones who never enrolled in upper secondary school.
Questions 9-32 are addressed to the pupils who started upper secondary school.
Questions 9-25 concern pupils’ choices of upper secondary program and the
factors that influenced their choice (2 questions). Other questions in this group
of questions refer to how difficult or easy it had been to study in upper
secondary school (1 question), whether pupils felt satisfied/dissatisfied whilst
they were there (2 questions), whether they have acquired any new knowledge (1
question), whether they felt self-confident as regards coping with the demands
of different academic subjects and tasks as well as social situations (4 questions).
And finally, the problems they may have experienced with things related to
study, such as concentrating during classes (1 question).
Questions 19-25 are new and ask the pupils whether they have attended an
individual program during upper secondary school and whether they have
acquired any new knowledge there. They are also asked whether they plan to try
to increase their knowledge and achievements by enrolling in additional
education programs/courses after finishing upper secondary school.
Question 26 has its focus on pupils’ leisure activities and the content of the
question is the same as the one in the questionnaire that was used previously.
The number of leisure activities to be considered has, however, been increased.
Questions 27-32 are essentially the same questions as those given to the 1967
cohort in grade 1 at upper secondary school and concern the pupils’ selfconfidence
in using a computer for different purposes (1 question), whether
they plan to continue their studies at university and, if so, for how many years
they expect to study, the type of program that they are most interested in (3
questions) and finally, what their future occupational plans are like (1 question).xt här



Michael Hansen
+46 (0)31 786 2165

Contact Information

Department of Education and Special Education

PO Box 300, SE 405 30 Gothenburg

Visiting Address:
Pedagogen Hus A, Västra Hamngatan 25

+46 (0)31 786 0000

Page Manager: Åsa Berndtsson & Bo Nielsen|Last update: 2/21/2017

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