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ETF - Cohort-sequential longitudinal databases Evaluation through follow-up

 THE COHORTS BORN IN 1967 (cohort 3)

As with the previous cohorts, the 1967 cohort consists of pupils sampled from grade 6
of compulsory school. For this cohort however, a different sampling design was used.
As mentioned previously, the two data collections conducted by ISP in 1961 and 1966
were based on all pupils in Sweden born on the 5th, 15th and 25th of any month in a
specific year; in this case 1948 and 1953. The data collections made by ETF were, instead,
based on all pupils enrolled in a specific grade in the Swedish elementary school, in this
case, all pupils who in the spring term of 1980 attending grade 6.
The sampling was carried out in a two-step process. First, a stratified sample of
municipalities was drawn and thereafter a systematic sample of classes within the
selected municipalities was created. The data collection thus included all pupils in the
selected classes. This sampling method gave a total of 9 114 pupils in the 1967 cohort.
This means that the sample size, relative to the population, is roughly the same for all
the three samples, i.e. about ten per cent of the total age cohort.
As was the case previously, the data held in the register are of two types: 1)
administrative data and 2) self-reported data.

1. Administrative data.

Administrative data for those born in 1967 were collected in
the spring term of 1980 by Statistics Sweden. The administrative data collected
in ETF are principally the same as those in ISP. There is, however, some new
information concerning administrative data available in ETF. In ISP this type of
data relates to information from school records, e.g. school grade, type of
school and subject grades. In ETF, this information was extended to include
data on whether the pupils have had home language instruction (mother tongue
teaching), special instruction or any other types of supportive interventions.
This type of information is available for all pupils in this cohort.
However, because of the school reforms that took place during the 1960's and
1970's subject grades in school grades 3 and 6 was not awarded by certain
schools. Given this, subject grades are only available for 4 300 or 47 per cent of
those pupils in the 1967 cohort who in the spring term of 1980 attended school
grade 6.

Annual data.

Annual or school-year-data on the pupils’ later school education
have been collected for the 1967 cohort by Statistics Sweden up to the end of
1982/83, that is, until the pupils attended grade 9. Annual data are available for
all pupils in the cohort.
However, Statistics Sweden has collected some additional information about this
cohort. This new information concerns the pupils who started at upper
secondary school during the school year 1982/83 and were enrolled in upper
secondary studies until 1985/86. It includes the type of study lines and courses
they took, numbers of pupils who completed their studies (those that is who
completed their studies during the year 1983/1984-1986/1987), as well as their
final grade point average from upper secondary school.
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2. Self-reported data.

Self-reported data for those born in 1967 was collected in the
spring term of 1980 by the Stockholm Institute of Education. The collected data
concern information about the results of three aptitude tests and responses to a
pupil questionnaire. In addition to the pupil questionnaire, there was a
questionnaire given to parents. Furthermore, scores on different national
standardised achievement tests were collected by Statistics Sweden when the
pupils were in grade 6, 8 and 9 of compulsory school.

Questionnaire data from parents.

The questionnaire given to parents concerns the
pupils’ family backgrounds and the parents’ aims and preferences for their
child’s education. The number of parents who responded to the questionnaire is
approximately 70 per cent. This questionnaire includes the following categories
of questions:

Background

Ten questions concern the father’s and the mother’s education and occupation.
Six questions concern the child’s living conditions while growing up. Some of
the questions asked of parents included the frequency with which the child had
changed school and housing, and the kind of accommodation that the child
currently lived in.

Plans and choices

Three questions concern the parents’ aims and preferences for their child’s
education. One of the questions asked of parents was whether the child should
get a job after finishing comprehensive school before she/he enrols in any
program of further education.

Perceptions of educational practices

Two questions concern the parents’ attitude to school and, in particular, their
opinion about the aims of school.

Questionnaire data from pupils in grade 6.

The questionnaire given to the 1967
cohort in ETF is quite different from those given to the 1948 and 1953 cohorts
in ISP. This questionnaire, and indeed subsequent pupil questionnaires that have
been used in ETF, contain, for example, more questions about the pupils’ selfconcept
in educational situations and questions concerning their perceived
ability to cope with schoolwork. The questions put to the pupils in the 1967
cohort are all new and, in contrast to the previous questions in ISP, questions
have not been grouped together into scales. Approximately 8 400 pupils have
responded to this questionnaire. The questionnaire includes the following
categories of questions:

Self-perceptions of competence

Thirty questions focus on pupils’ perceptions of their competency in
accomplishing certain tasks in academic and social domains and of their
relationship with the teacher. Each question starts with a statement followed by
three questions to be answered from three different perspectives.
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Ten questions asking the pupils to mark one of nine “rungs on a ladder” when
comparing their competency in accomplishing certain tasks in academic and
social domains with how well they think other people would have accomplished
the same tasks.

Motivation

Sixteen questions concerning the positive as well as the negative affects (feelings
of success and anxiety) pupils may experience in various ordinary evaluative
situations that take place in school, their relationships with peers, their
expectations and the support and encouragement they experience at home in
relation to achievements and schoolwork.

Plans and choices

Three questions concern the reasons why the pupils have chosen general or
advanced courses in mathematics and English, and their choice of elective
subjects at upper level of secondary school (eighteen response alternatives).
Six questions ask about whether the pupils have visited their mother or father at
their place of work and whether they have any plans as regards future education
and jobs of their own.

Leisure activities

Nine questions ask the pupils to indicate whether they are members of any club
and how often they are engaged in different kinds of leisure activities.

Aptitude tests.

The three aptitude tests are identical with those used in ISP in 1961
and 1966 and scores on these are available for approximately 8 200 pupils in the
1967 cohort.

National standardised achievement tests in grade 6.

Scores on the national standardised
achievement tests in Swedish, English and mathematics done in grade 6 are
available for approximately 5 500 pupils in the 1967 cohort, i.e. for the majority
of pupils who attended schools that had chosen to conduct these tests.

National standardised achievement tests in grade 8 and 9.

In addition, for many of the
pupils in the 1967 cohort, scores on the national standardised achievement tests
in English from grade 8 (70% of the cohort) and mathematics from grade 9
(80% of the cohort) were collected by Statistics Sweden in the spring terms of
1982 and 1983 respectively.

Questionnaire data from pupils in grade 1 at upper secondary school.

In the spring term of
1984, one year after having left compulsory school, the 1967 cohort,
encompassing approximately 9 000 pupils, were given another questionnaire.
This questionnaire consisted of two versions. The first version was addressed to
pupils who started upper secondary school in autumn 1982 or spring 1983 and
continued their studies. This group included the pupils who had started, but
who had not completed, an upper secondary school line. The second version
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was addressed to pupils who had not completed an upper secondary school line
four years after having finished compulsory school. This latter group included
pupils who had not attended upper secondary school at all. These pupils are
referred to as ‘early school leavers’.
The first version was comprised of 60 questions which focused on the pupils’
evaluation of their basic skills in reading, writing and arithmetic and whether
compulsory school had given them sufficient training or a good enough
preparation for the activities that they were currently involved in. From those
who had continued on to upper secondary school, information was also
collected about their choices of study programmes and courses. Responses were
received from approximately 7 000 pupils or 77 per cent of the total cohort. In
the following section, the content of this questionnaire will be presented in
more detail.

Pupil questionnaire version 1

Questions 1-5 concern background information and are addressed to all pupils
in the 1967 cohort. Questions 6-11 are addressed to those who have been
engaged in some kind of work during a particular period of time, whilst 12-13
are addressed to pupils who have been engaged in some kind of education,
including apprentice education, during the same period of time.
Questions 14-16 are addressed to pupils who have started, but not completed,
upper secondary school, i.e. the ones who dropped out.
These questions focus on the reasons that played a crucial role in these pupils’
decision to interrupt a study line or course (14, 15) and their plans to resume
their studies at some point in the future or not (16).
Questions 17-59 are addressed to all pupils, i.e. the group who currently attend
upper secondary school as well as the group who have attended upper
secondary school, but who have ´dropped-out´.

Plans and choices

Questions 17-20 focus on pupils’ choices concerning upper secondary school
line/course and vocational plans.
Questions 21-42 concern the pupils’ retrospective experiences during their
period of education in the upper level of compulsory school

Classroom and school characteristics

One question (21) concerns the number of teachers that the pupils have had
over their years in the upper level of compulsory school.

Self-perceptions of competence

One question (22) concerning pupils’ self-perceptions of competence, asks the
pupils to judge whether they have experienced any difficulties with handling
certain tasks within either the academic or social domains during their period of
study in the upper level of compulsory school.
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Motivation

Out of twenty questions concerning pupil motivation, five questions concern
the support and encouragement in their schoolwork that the pupils have
received at home and from their teachers during their period of study in the
upper level of compulsory school (23, 24), the general affect or how they felt in
upper secondary school most of the time (25, 26), and whether the final grades
from compulsory school have been fair or adequate given their achievements.
Fifteen questions concern the negative as well as positive affects (feelings of
anxiety and success) that pupils have experienced in certain academic situations
during this period of study. These questions are given to the pupils as
statements such as: “I often found it difficult to concentrate during lessons” or
“I did my absolute best in subjects that I though were boring” that pupils have
to respond to by indicating their agreement/disagreement (“I agree” or “I don’t
agree”).
In questions 43-45 the pupils are asked to think about their situation as students
in upper secondary school, job-seekers or as employees.

Self-perceptions of competence

In question 43 pupils are asked to judge whether they have enough knowledge
to handle certain tasks within the academic and social domain, in general, while
in question 57 they have to consider if they are confident in situations that
requires certain academic or social skills in upper secondary school.
Perceptions of educational practices
One question (44) asks pupils to consider whether the training they received
within areas such as cooperation and working independently during their time in
the upper level of compulsory school has been sufficient. In another question
(45) pupils have to judge whether they received sufficient information about
different educational paths, vocational training and their opportunities to get a
ob in the future, while they were still at the upper level of compulsory school.

Motivation

Seven of the fifteen questions concerning pupil motivation, referred above, are
given to the pupils once again, this time asking the pupils to respond by taking
into the consideration their situation in upper secondary school (50-56). This
goes even for two of the five questions, referred above (46, 49).
In one question (47) the pupils have to consider whether keeping up with the
work to be done in upper secondary school has been as easy or more difficult
than they expected it to be when they were in the upper level of compulsory
school.

Plans and choices

In question 48 the pupils are asked about their educational plans in the
immediate future.
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Leisure activities

In question 58 the pupils are asked to judge how often they spend time on
reading books and newspapers or work in order to earn money. Question 59
asks the pupils to specify whether they participate in organised activities and, if
so, what types of organised activities (a total of 8 alternatives including e.g.
sports, hobby club, etc.). This group of questions includes some of the
questions concerning leisure activities presented to the pupils when they were in
grade 6 of compulsory school.

Open-ended question

At the end of the questionnaire there is an open-ended question where pupils
are asked to write personal comments about compulsory school or the
education in which they participate.

Pupil questionnaire version 2

The second version of the pupil questionnaire in grade 1 at upper secondary
school is addressed to pupils who did not attend upper secondary school at the
point in time that they received the questionnaire or have never attended upper
secondary school. Most of the items in this questionnaire are identical to those
given to pupils who started upper secondary school in autumn 1982 or spring
1983 and continued their studies, including the pupils who started but who have
not completed an upper secondary school line. Two questions have been
omitted however, while five others have been modified or have had changes
made to the response options.

 

SHORTCUTS IPS

Contact

Michael Hansen
+46 (0)31 786 2165
Email

Contact Information

Department of Education and Special Education

PO Box 300, SE 405 30 Gothenburg

Visiting Address:
Pedagogen Hus A, Västra Hamngatan 25

Phone:
+46 (0)31 786 0000

Page Manager: Åsa Berndtsson & Bo Nielsen|Last update: 1/31/2017
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