The purpose of the study was to examine science achievement and its correlates in the participating countries and to study trends in science achievement from the first testing, which took place in 1970–1971. The student tests were developed for the three age groups of students and included a number of science topics. For each topic, three types of activities were tested: knowledge, understanding of a principle, and application of information and principles to solve a practical problem. The science test was complemented by questionnaires for students, teachers, and school principals. In addition, countries participating in the study prepared a National Science Education Case Study Report on teaching science within the country. The data were collected in 1983–1984.
Three target populations were tested: 10-year-old students, 14-year-old students, and terminal secondary school students.
Australia, Canada, China, England, Finland, Ghana, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, United States, Zimbabwe.
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